Turanian Writing – Inscriptions on Vessels

Fig.8 Cup 43, Cup 42, Cup 45, Cup 47

Fig.8 Cup 43, Cup 42, Cup 45, Cup 47

Cup 43. The inscriptions on several cups, as was noted, have a religious character. One of such cups, No 43, was purchased before 1875 at Nijny Novgorod fair. On the inside at the bottom of vessel is shown four-armed deity sitting on an animal, with a disk (sun) in the right and a lotus (half moon) the left hand, a bat (axe) in the lower right hand, and the lower left hand is empty. The deity has a crown with stepwise sides on the head, decorated on the forehead with a lunar sickle with three starlets. The similar crown on the coins is shown on Asukdjavar, the Turan ruler in the beginning of the 8-th c. However, the lunar sickle, the most important symbol, with three starlets on the forehead, was noted previously on the antique coins of Turan [Vainberg B.I. 1977, Table XVIII, B2].

At the bottom of this vessel, it seems, is shown Vishnu, one of the Hinduistic gods, an ancient solar deity. The local tribal deities gradually merged in the image of Vishnu. He is usually depicted as a young men with four hands, in which he holds a bowl, a disk, a bat and a lotus flower. On this cup the deity is represented with symbols of the moon and the sun, which, it seems, is explained that the Huns (Turanians) worshipped these celestial heavenly bodies.

The cult of Vishnu, though fairly complex, but is cheerful and lively. Vishnu descended to the earth a few times, to rescue the world or the faithful people. These earthen transformations are called Avatars, which, essentially, are the objects of reverence. First Avatar as a a fish, second – as a turtle, third – as boar, fourth – as a lion man, fifth – as a dwarf, sixth – as a “Frame with an axe” etc. [Bongard-Levin T.M., Ilyin G.F., 1969, 615].
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The basis of the Vishnuism is the doctrine of a transformation of soul, or Sansara, which happens in accordance with the laws of Karma – retribution for bad or kind deeds. The cult rituals were made in special temples, at home altars or in sacred places.

On the exterior rim of this cup is an inscription. In front of the inscription is, larger than the letters, a tamga shaped as k (“Karma”-?) of the Turanian alphabet.

Tracing of the inscription (Fig.8)

Transliteration:

Körk meηizi turkur mu kim
Čökutü  olurupan  nom sazun
Körunun čökürlun muη tar  sečulun
Sorulun  köni meηilün  satulaiu
Sözläli  darninyγ  nom sözün  sözlän

Translation:

That who creates (excites) transformation – sitting on knees let him listen to the religious doctrine (magic formula). Bow, discard grief and suffering, ask, truly rejoice, repeat without stop words of sacred sermon (magic spell).

The text of the inscription is a “live word”, connected, it seems, with the Hunno-Türkic Buddhist sacred Bible Altun Yaruk (sutra “Gold Luster”). One of such fairly late manuscripts of this book says: “… And then, kneeling and prayerly joining hands, let him say this one thousand eight times…, (and then), what the wishes he has, will be satisfied and accomplished “[Radlov V.V., Malov S.E., 1913-1917].
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Cup 42. The next vessel was found in the village Kovin of the Perm district in 1846. At the bottom of vessel on the inside is engraved the same four-armed deity. In one upper hand the deity holds sun, and in other half moon. Different from the image on the previous vessel, the sun is in the right hand, and half moon is in the left hand of the deity.

A magnificent inscription is located around the rim on the outside of the vessel and, it looks, it is engraved by the same instrument, which was used by the master crafter to decorate the vessel with tongue-like ornamental stripes.

Transcription of the inscription (Fig.8)

Transcription of the inscription (Fig.8)

Transliteration:

Oνqï  im  νrxan  qutï  krk
Meηizi  törüsun   sakryνarny
Tikiη  neη  kmü  čakryνarny
Süzlä  üz  kečur  sačyγ  sač  nom
Sazun  sözlä

Translation:

Notify (literally: read) a blessedness symbol of Buddha! Rules of transformation, sangivars *, install yourself. Task of each: is to praise Chakryvarns**, recast creature, make sacrificial anointment, and say words of religious teaching and canonical ordinance.

*   Sangivars – sangastavira – higher performer of rituals in Buddhist community.
** Chakravart – Great Ruler – one of the highest stages on the ladder of salvation.
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Cup 45. At the bottom of the cup is a standing deity with a goat head, with fluttering striped ribbons flying from the back of the head, as symbols of the imperial dignity.

A similar, standing deity with a goat head and striped ribbons, but without an inscription, is on a piala-type silver cup in the Perm regional museum.

Outside of the cup 45 around the rim is an inscription.

Transcription of the inscription (Fig.8)

Transcription of the inscription (Fig.8)

Transliteration:

Körk  ηizi  meηizi  neηsiz  mu  kimmu   mükkün
dian  (?)  umun irq irumun
Satulaju  sozläli darni

Translation:

Transformation. Whether deprived, or other, bow low, rely on contemplation, think up a prophecy, without stop repeat the spell.

Cup 47. The vessel was bought in 1875 in the Verkhne-Berezovsk place in the Perm district. The external surface of a cup is covered with decoration reminding a curtain with band ties. There are no drawings or images. Around exterior rim runs the inscription.

Transcription of the inscription (Fig.8)

Transcription of the inscription (Fig.8)

Transliteration:

Körx  meηizi   quruγu  qurxmaq
Küsüskeg  jüküη   idiumun
Irumun  satulaju  sözläli  darni
Sözi

Translation:

Sequence in forming transformation (reincarnation? orig.: перевоплощения): zealously bow, trust ye for a God’s omen, repeat the words of the sacred teaching without stop.
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Azgar Mukhamadiev
Turanian Writing
Article “Turanian Writing”, in the book “Problems Of Linguoethnohistory Of The Tatar People” (Kazan, 1995. pp. 36-83)

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